Twenty Rare Inflammatory Diseases

Twenty rare inflammatory diseases

Twenty Rare Inflammatory Diseases


An inflammatory disease can be challenging to diagnose.

Here are twenty rare inflammatory diseases, each with a brief description and footnotes for further reading:

  1. Behçet's Disease: A chronic condition causing inflammation in blood vessels.
  2. Still's Disease (Adult-onset): Characterized by high fevers, rash, and arthritis.
  3. Takayasu's Arteritis: Affects the large arteries, particularly the aorta.
  4. Kawasaki Disease: Causes inflammation in blood vessels throughout the body.
  5. Relapsing Polychondritis: Involves recurrent inflammation of cartilage.
  6. Churg-Strauss Syndrome (Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis): Affects small to medium-sized blood vessels.
  7. Polymyalgia Rheumatica: Causes muscle pain and stiffness.
  8. Giant Cell Arteritis (Temporal Arteritis): Inflammation of the lining of the arteries.
  9. Cryoglobulinemia: Characterized by abnormal proteins in the blood that can cause inflammation.
  10. IgG4-related Disease: Affects multiple organs and tissues, leading to fibrosis and inflammation.
  11. Periodic Fever Syndromes: A group of disorders causing recurrent fevers and inflammation.
  12. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A type of arthritis that affects children.
  13. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS): Affects the immune system, leading to uncontrolled lymphocyte production.
  14. Sweet's Syndrome: Characterized by painful skin lesions and fever.
  15. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease: Affects eyes, ears, skin, and the meninges.
  16. Sarcoidosis: Causes granulomas to form in various organs.
  17. Castleman's Disease: Affects the lymph nodes and related tissues.
  18. Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System (PACNS): Inflammation of blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord.
  19. Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF): Causes recurrent fevers and inflammation.
  20. Systemic Scleroderma: Characterized by thickening and hardening of the skin and internal organs.


  1. National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD)
  2. Genetics Home Reference - NIH
  3. Orphanet

For more detailed information on these diseases, you can visit the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) website or refer to medical literature available through resources like PubMed.